- A Look Into Psychoanalysis
The longevity of success using psychoanalysis becomes a testimony to Freud’s in-depth study of the human mind. His forty plus years of work in the field were spent on the development of the main principles of psychoanalysis along with the techniques and methods used by the analyst. His work was furthered by his daughter and later adopted then adapted by Erikson. What seemed so revolutionary in the 1890’s and beyond has now become widely accepted by most all schools of psychological thought and its study.
In this essay, the author
- Explains how sigmund freud’s theory of psychoanalysis began with the discovery that a person in complete physical health could experience an illness with physical symptoms that stemmed from things trapped in the subconscious.
- Explains freud’s study of the id, ego, and superego.
- Explains that instincts, which are mostly a part of the id, are the cause of every human behavior. eros is responsible for establishing and preserving relationships.
- Explains freud’s theory that one must go back to birth, which is the manifestation of an individual’s sexuality. psychosexual development progresses from the oral through the anal to the phallic phase.
- Explains freud’s description of the conscious, preconscious, and unconscious. the psychoanalyst must find the line between what is merely a part
- Explains that psychoanalytic treatment is used on patients who suffer from one or more of a variety of psychological symptoms such as anxiety, depression, sexual and other inhibitions, obsessive thoughts, irrational anger, shyness and timidity.
- Explains that transference is the unconscious expectation that the old injuries and insults will now again be suffered, as if transferred from the past into the present.
- Explains that the analyst interprets the re-experienced conflicts and traumas, together with the accompanying fears and feelings, and the patient learns to recognize the connections between the experiences.
- Explains that freud’s in-depth study of the human mind was a testimony to his forty plus years of work in the field.
- Case Study Brief Review: Psychotherapy Case Review
Psychodynamic therapy grew out of the practices of Freudian psychoanalysis which is laid on the opinion that a persons’ behavior is affected by the unconscious mind and by the past events and experiences. Psychodynamic therapy normally requires longer time (to some extent two years) as it set on a journey to overhaul an aspect of persons’ identity, personality or to effect a key developmental learning missed while an individual was stuck at the earlier stage of emotional development (Goldbreg, 2014).
In this essay, the author
- Explains that cognitive behavioral therapy (cbt) focuses on learning, unlike other psychotherapeutic approaches which rely in abundance on analyzing and exploring individual’s relationship with their immediate environment.
- Opines that the therapist would help x realize that there is no evidence that she had any control over her parents’ demise. sadness and depression are healthy negative emotions that may lead her to work on her future relations.
- Explains that rebt focuses less on deeper historical issues which may underlie the visible symptoms. further therapy may include the investigation of roles played by experience in compounding the current situations.
- Opines that ipt has shown great efficacy in the treatment of people with depression and relationship problems, but there are drawbacks making some therapists and patients to choose against it.
- Explains that rational emotive behavior therapy (rebt) emphasizes on the reorganization of cognitive and emotional functions. the therapist and x would have to mutually change irrational beliefs.
- Explains that psychodynamic therapy grew out of the practices of freudian psychoanalysis, which is laid on the opinion that a persons’ behavior is affected by the unconscious mind and by past events and experiences.
- Opines that psychodynamic therapy takes a great deal of time to cover the whole session, which may limit its usage on individuals who may have more immediate need to relieve their acute symptoms.
- Two Psychological Theories of Development
The psychodynamic approach lends itself to being a controversial yet highly influential theory in the history of psychology. The theory has become one of the most significant psychological approaches and its originator, Sigmund Freud, has become a major influence in modern psychology. The psychodynamic approach largely focuses on motivation and past experiences which develop and individual’s personality. Freud used the iceberg metaphor to outline the three states of consciousness and argued that only twenty percent of the mind represents the conscious. In addition he theorised that there was a pre-conscious mind which represents general memory. Finally, the unconscious mind which is essentially the reservoir of repressed or hidden experiences and desire.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that they intend to discuss two psychological theories of development, the psychodynamic approach and the behavioural approach, and how an understanding of these theories relates to care.
- Explains that the psychodynamic approach lends itself to being a controversial but highly influential theory in the history of psychology.
- Analyzes how freud’s psychodynamic approach has become the stimulus for a number of similar theories which share the same assumptions on psychological development, yet differ in detail.
- Explains erikson’s concept that psychosocial development is divided into eight age-related stages, each with a crisis point to overcome. positive resolution of these crises results in the individual acquiring an ego strength.
- Explains that the first stage of this theory occurs between birth and one year of age and is seen as the cornerstone of psychosocial development and a healthy personality.
- Explains erikson’s theory that children assert their independence around the age of eighteen months to three years old. the ego strength of will only emerge if the child’s caregivers support them and allow them to complete tasks by themselves.
- Explains that children assert themselves more frequently through play and social interactions. the ego strength of purpose will emerge only if the child is encouraged to initiate activities with others.
- Explains that between the ages of five and eleven, children begin to make decisions on their own. the ego strength of competence will emerge if the child is encouraged and feels confident in their ability to achieve goals.
- Explains that the transition from childhood to adulthood between the age of thirteen and eighteen is the main focus during adolescence.
- Explains that in adulthood, ages nineteen to twenty-five, the first major crisis to overcome is intimacy vs isolation. the ego strength of love will emerge if the individual is successful in this stage.
- Explains that through the middle ages of adulthood individuals settle down with their careers and establish their families. they will feel as if they are contributing to society by raising children and becoming involved in the community.
- Explains erikson’s final stage occurs during the latter stages of adulthood between the age of sixty-five and death.
- Explains how the psychodynamic approach can be invaluable to health care professionals as the individual stages can help the carer view life as a series of challenges which need to be overcome.
- Explains that behavioral theorists view all behaviour as a response to stimulus. they theorise that our actions are determined by the stimuli in the environment we are in.
- Explains that albert ellis, like freud, was the founding father of cognitive-behavioural psychology and theorised that people’s beliefs strongly affected their emotional functioning.
- Sigmund Freud’s Psycho Dynamics and Piaget’s Cognitive Approaches to Psychology
This essay is going to describe in depth and detail the theories of Sigmund Freud’s psycho dynamic approach. The strengths and weakness as an evaluation of Sigmund Freud’s work. A summary and evaluation of the cognitive perspective as an alternative of human behaviour will also be identified in this essay.
In this essay, the author
- Compares sigmund freud’s model of the mind to an iceberg, where the tip is visible above the water and the rest is hidden below it unseen.
- Explains how freud believed there was more to the human mind than first thought and set about finding ways to unlock the mysteries behind it.
- Explains that freud’s ideas have become interwoven into the fabric of our culture, with terms such as “freudian slip,” “repression” and “denial” appearing regularly.
- Describes and evaluates sigmund freud’s psychodynamic approach as an explanation of human behaviour.
- Explains sigmund freud’s theory of psychosexual development. he uses five stages to describe it.
- Evaluates the strengths and weaknesses of sigmund freud’s theories.
- What Is Abnormal Psychology And Therapy
The main contemporary forms of psychodynamic treatment are psychoanalysis, which is intensive and long term and psychodynamic psychotherapy, which relies on the same principles but is more conversational. Researchers have found that all psychotherapies are relatively effective, although some treatments are superior for some disorders. According to Renner, Morrissey, Mae, Feldman and Majors (2011), there are four major approaches to therapy for psychological disorders. Psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic approaches each have their own characteristics in relation to therapy. Psychodynamic therapists share the belief that a patient’s psychological disorder is the result of the person’s unconscious.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that autism spectrum disorder and autism are both general terms for a group of complex disorders of brain development.
- Explains that avoidant personality disorder is characterized by hypersensitivity to rejection and criticism, desire for uncritical acceptance by others, social withdrawal despite a desire to affection and acceptance, and low self-esteem.
- Explains that abnormal psychology studies behavior that seems abnormal and determines why it occurs. normal psychology is the study of normal behabior within a normal range.
- Explains that all psychotherapies are relatively effective, although some treatments are superior for some disorders. psychodynamic, behavioral, cognitive and humanistic approaches each have their own characteristics in relation to therapy.
- Explains the characteristics of avoidant personality disorder, which may resemble those found in both schizoid and
- Indecision, Hesitation and Delay in Shakespeare’s Hamlet
Freud, Sigmund. 1953-74. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works. 24 vols, trans. James Stachey. London: Hogarth.
In this essay, the author
- Describes bodkin, maud, archetypal patterns in poetry: psychological studies of imagination.
- Cites fineman, joel, and murray m. schwarz in representing shakespeare: new psychoanalytic essays.
- Opines that the real issue is not hamlet’s hesitation, but our unwillingness to understand it.
- Analyzes how hamlet’s flaw is lodged in the end of the “to be or not to be” soliloquy, the most famous dramatic monologue in english literature.
- Analyzes how shakespeare uses scene after scene to drive home the link between hamlet’s passivity and his preoccupation with death and decay.
- Analyzes how hamlet’s “pale cast of thought” has made him sick and unable to act to good effect until he recovers.
- Analyzes how hamlet’s trouble isn’t depressed, but he lacks the acceptance of the terrifying transitoriness of life that could inspire and reanimate him.
- Analyzes how hamlet’s unbalanced puerile stance is precisely what summons forth life’s serpents. a manic have a nice day society that prettifies death and numbs “negative” feelings doesn’t understand either the hamlets flaw or the faustian and frankensteinian dangers it creates
- Analyzes how shakespeare’s portrayal of the ghost in his play, hamlet, helped him become a playwright.
- Cites fowler, alastair, freud, sigmund, and pendleton in ‘fanned and winnowed opinions’: shakespearean essays presented to harold jenkins.
- Sigmund Freud and his Interesting but Flawed Dissection of Religion
Freud, Sigmund, James Strachey, and Anna Freud. The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud. London: Hogarth, 1955. Print.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that freud shocked the victorian world with his provocative discoveries of the subconscious and what it means in determining human nature. he developed groundbreaking theories exploring the roots of neurotic symptoms and the conflict between the human id and super ego.
- Opines that freud’s criticisms of religion are enticing, but the lack of evidence in his highly detailed account of its origin leaves a bad taste in their mouth.
- Explains freud’s first account of religion appears in obsessive actions and religious practices. he suggests that religion and neurosis are similar products stemming from the human mind.
- Opines that they are not the first to be struck by the resemblance between obsessive actions in sufferers from nervous affections and observances by which believers give expression to their piety.
- Explains freud’s view that obsessive actions stem from compulsions and prohibitions, whereas religious rituals are meaningless.
- Explains freud’s internal and external fear of the outside world. the obsessive action, or ritual, gives the illusion of control over the external and internal worlds.
- Explains freud’s view that even the most pious observations have a value of defense and protection. the formation of religion is based on superstition and the renouncing certain instinctual impulses.
- Analyzes freud’s accounts of the oedipus complex and the mastery of it through religion.
- Analyzes how freud speculated that the social unit was a primal horde in primitive societies.
- Analyzes freud’s view that religion is a ‘compromise solution’ to traumatic evolutionary process, which is essential to the human species.
- Explains freud’s view that religion provides an illusion of safety from fate to infantile mindsets. the affective strength of this image and the persistence of our need for protection jointly sustain our belief in god
- The Historical, Philosophical, and Empirical Foundations of Psychology
The field of psychology is a discipline, originated from many branches of science. It has applications from within a complete scope of avenues, from psychotherapy to professional decision-making. The flexibility and versatility of this field reflects its importance and demands in-depth analysis. Psychology was a division of philosophy until it developed independent scientific disciplines. The history of psychology was a scholarly study of the mind and behavior that dates back to the beginning of civilization. There are important details from previous theory psychologist, research have contributed to behaviorism approaches and have contributed towards specific current behavioral practices. Contemporary behavior therapy began to emerge into distinct practical and core learning theories concerning the needs and knowledge engaging cultural and professional differences.
In this essay, the author
- Explains the three main epochs of psychology, pre-modern, modern, and postmodern.
- Explains that the church was no longer its central authority in imparting knowledge, and the ruling class and educational system took over the field of philosophy. wundt founded structuralism as the first school of thought.
- Explains that wundt and titchener’s first thought concept, based on the conscious, working of the human mind, perished with the death of their father. structuralism was the basis of experimental psychology.
- Explains that functionalism was developed by william james in the late 1800s in america. it sought to investigate the relation of human behavior and the environment, and relied on observation than intuition.
- Explains that the idea of scientific investigations has changed from specialization to the interdisciplinary and eclectic period. they combine religious and cultural values with scientific data as a point of reference for postmodern psychology research.
- Explains the significance of gestalt theory, which provides enrichment to how objects were perceived and redefined through the approach of psychological research.
- Explains that humanistic psychology focuses on the person’s potential to act as a whole person in the nurturing environment by choice while receiving positive influences.
- Argues that cognitive psychology generalizes science and explains the processes of perceiving, decoding and how people apply information is retained in the human memory.
- Describes burley, freier, and freeer’s character structure: a gestalt-cognitive theory. psychotherapy: theory, research, practice, training.
- States goodwin, c. j. (2008), a history of modern psychology, hoboken, nj, wiley.
- Cites ibrahim, b.s., islamic medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times, journal of the islamic medical association, (2) pages 2-9.
- Explains that psychology originated from many branches of science and has applications from psychotherapy to professional decision-making. psychology was a division of philosophy until it developed independent scientific disciplines.
- Explains that the study of psychology began as a theoretical subject and later as part of biological sciences and physiology. the paper aims to study the various stages that psychology passed through to reach its contemporary status and their effects on its development.
- Explains the history of psychology, which dates back to the greeks. descartes, cabanis, wundt, ebbinghaus, pavlov, et al.
- Explains that the pre-modern era was heavily influenced by religious teachings uncontrolled across the world.
- Explains the concept of behaviorist thought, developed by scientists such as pavlov and skinner, which upheld the dominant effect of environment on the human psyche.
- Explains that freud revolutionized the field of psychology in the mid twentieth century. he proposed the role of the unconscious mind in establishing human behavior and personality.
- Explains the history of diversity in psychology during europe early schools was influenced by its cultural and religious backgrounds. the post-modern epoch saw a worldwide revolution of ideas.
- Opines that the post-modern concept incorporates elements of interdisciplinary studies, and is helpful in making informal personal and professional decisions. carl rogers provides a sound technique of carrying out effective conversations with the client.
- Explains kassin, s., danner, n, aveni, m. k, briggs, and a.
- Cites roth, fonagy, smith, m. k., and backe, a.
- The Cognitive and Psychodynamic Psychological Approaches and Eating Disorders
Freud S et al, 1995 The Complete Correspondence of Sigmund Freud and Ernest Jones, 1908-1939., Belknap Press, Harvard University Press,ISBN 067415424X
In this essay, the author
- Explains that ethical issues in psychology are determined by morals and ethics. morels being what are perceived to be right or wrong relating to human behaviour, and ethical principles that professionals like teachers should uphold.
- Explains the differences between cognitive and psychodynamic approaches to the critical issues of eating disorders.
- Explains the different types of research methods used within two different psychological case studies/experiments. these include statistics, observation, questionnaires, government data, face to face interviews, the media, periodicals, experiments, and/or surveys.
- Opines that field experiments are more accurate as they are carried out in a natural environment and conditions formulated to test theories.
- Opines that deception is necessary if the research is critical to understanding human beings. the milligram study of obedience to authority tested how far students would carry out instructions to inflict pain.
- Cites eysenck, m.w., freud, and jones’ complete correspondence, belknap press, harvard university press.
- Briefer and Deeper: A Comparative Analysis of Depth-Oriented Psychotherapy
Messer, S. & Warren, C. (1995). Models of brief psychodynamic therapy: A comparative approach. The Guildford Press, New York.
In this essay, the author
- Explains that the use of psychotherapy in time-limited contexts is the hallmark of modern trends toward maximizing effectiveness and minimizing costs in the realm of health and mental health treatment.
- Explains that despite the diversity in brief psychotherapy approaches, each therapy tends to be based on similar fundamental assumptions and general themes.
- Compares bruce ecker and laurel hulley’s depth-oriented brief psychotherapy (dobt) model to what has become the customary brief approach.
- Explains that the dobt approach is essentially constructivist in nature. it assumes that people are the “native architects” of their experiential reality.
- Explains that depth-oriented psychotherapy’s essential transformative medium is the “emotional truth” of the symptom.
- Explains that dobt advocates for the avoidance of interpretation during treatment. the therapist is not theorizing, diagnosing, or interpreting, but brings the client into a direct encounter with her psychological material, her emotional truth.
- Explains that dobt sessions work to elicit the client’s “anti-symptom” and “pro” positions. the latter is a manifestation of human need to make sense of our experiences.
- Explains that dobt does not use the establishment of specific foci or goals. its primary purpose is to view each client as an exception, and use their own self-reports to lead them to a greater understanding of themselves.
- Explains that depth-oriented psychotherapy (dobt) has a set of generally prescribed techniques geared toward making sense of the client’s unconscious meanings.
- Explains that radical inquiry is a phenomenological, experiential process of discovery carried out entirely within the realm of the client’s subjective meaning.
- Explains how “viewing from a symptom-free position” and “inviting resistance” use client resistance to shed light on unconscious processes.
- Explains that the dobt methodology outlines a number of different approaches for dealing with “unexpected resistance”.
- Explains that dobt utilizes transference as an expression of the client’s unconscious position. it is capitalized on as another construction of meaning.
- Explains dobt’s theory of change through a methodology referred to as “experiential shift” which consists of two basic concepts: position work and coaching the transformation of pro-symptom constructs.
- Explains that as the client progresses in her/his awareness of each position, the therapist can move to an overt statement that sums them both up.
- Explains that the client has reached a crucial step in integration and is on the road to radical and deeply abiding change in their experience of themselves.
- Explains that dobt routinely assigns between session tasks to facilitate the client’s work on their own, which increases the therapy’s effectiveness.
- States ecker and hulley’s argument that psychotherapy systems are most usefully compared in terms of the construct levels they seek to change.
- Explains that the third order deals with the purpose behind symptom production, and the fourth with ontological construct maintaining that purpose. higher order constructs serve as a context for lower, thereby involving more inclusive meaning.
- Explains that dobt’s methodology represents a new stage for constructivist therapy. it caters to the practical needs of health care settings and the trend toward theoretical pluralism in clinical practice.
- Cites borden’s “pluralism, pragmatism, and the therapeutic endeavor in brief dynamic treatment.”