the act of putting one thing in the place of another, such as the chemical replacement of one atom or substituent group by another. Called also replacement
2. In psychoanalysis, an unconscious defense mechanism by which an unacceptable or unattainable goal, object, or emotion is replaced by one that is more acceptable or attainable; the process is more acute and direct, and less subtle, than sublimation.
1. In chemistry, replacement of an atom or group in a compound by another atom or group (for example, substitution of H by Cl in CH 4 to give CH 3 Cl).
Psychiatry An unconscious defense mechanism through which an unattainable or unacceptable goal, emotion, or object is replaced by one that is more attainable or acceptable. See Ego defense mechanism.
2. psychoanalysis An unconscious defense mechanism by which an unacceptable or unattainable goal, object, or emotion is replaced by one that is more acceptable or attainable; the process is more acute and direct, and less subtle, than sublimation.
Patient discussion about substitution
Q. Do people substitute one addiction with another? If someone used to be addicted to alcohol and drugs, but is now clean for several months, is it likely that he will develop an addiction to something else (for example cigarettes or gambling)?
A. I’d just like to add my 2 cents worth: Addictive behavior transfers to just about anything; addiction is the problem. Just as addicts have to learn that alcohol is also a drug, we must recognize that addiction is the problem; it is the behavior that is the problem. A common thing for addicts to do is to stop using drugs (including alcohol) and to substitute with people instead, for example, to become involved in codependent relationships with others, or to recognize that their ongoing relationships may also be codependent. It’s not uncommon for individuals to go to CoDA (Codependents Anonymous) in addition to AA/NA or GA(Gambler’s Anonymous), MA (Marijuana Anonymous)…Others find it more beneficial to use one program (like NA, e.g.), while realizing that addiction refers to more than just a drug or substance.
Q. Any suggestions for coping with asthma in 5 year old? My daughter has asthma. It comes on when she has a cold or an ear or throat infection. I had to give her a liquid steroid last night as she had asthma really badly, the trouble is the steroid makes her so hyper-active, jumping off lounges and running around etc. It drives me crazy because she really needs to rest. I have seen specialists and this is what they all prescribe. What sort of medications do you give your asthmatic child? Are there any new developments I’m not aware of? I would really like some natural remedies if there is any, or diet tips.
A. hi whiteh,i am a retired respiratory therapist,depending on how bad your child is with her attacks will determine what types of meds work for her steroids are given for bad asthma an it might be the only thing that works good for her,her dr knows best.if your child has a regular dr. get a pulmonary specialist for her.—-also steroids should NOT BE STOPPED right AWAY if your child has been on high doses this can cause her to have a bad attack.—mrfoot56
More discussions about substitution
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Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT) is the use of medications, in combination with counseling and behavioral therapies , to provide a “whole-patient” approach to the treatment of substance use disorders. It is also important to address other health conditions during treatment.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved several different medications to treat alcohol and opioid use disorders MAT medications relieve the withdrawal symptoms and psychological cravings that cause chemical imbalances in the body. Medications used for MAT are evidence-based treatment options and do not just substitute one drug for another.
Methadone used to treat those with a confirmed diagnosis of Opioid Use Disorder can only be dispensed through a SAMHSA certified OTP. Some of the medications used in MAT are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse. Drugs, substances, and certain chemicals used to make drugs are classified by the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) into five distinct categories, or schedules, depending upon a drug’s acceptable medical use and potential for misuse. Learn more about DEA drug schedules.
Alcohol Use Disorder Medications – Acamprosate, disulfiram, and naltrexone are the most common drugs used to treat alcohol use disorder. They do not provide a cure for the disorder, but are most effective in people who participate in a MAT program.
- Acamprosate – is for people in recovery, who are no longer drinking alcohol and want to avoid drinking. It works to prevent people from drinking alcohol, but it does not prevent withdrawal symptoms after people drink alcohol. It has not been shown to work in people who continue drinking alcohol, consume illicit drugs, and/or engage in prescription drug misuse and abuse. The use of acamprosate typically begins on the fifth day of abstinence, reaching full effectiveness in five to eight days. It is offered in tablet form and taken three times a day, preferably at the same time every day. The medication’s side effects may include diarrhea, upset stomach, appetite loss, anxiety, dizziness, and difficulty sleeping.
- Disulfiram – treats chronic alcoholism and is most effective in people who have already gone through detoxification or are in the initial stage of abstinence. Offered in a tablet form and taken once a day, disulfiram should never be taken while intoxicated and it should not be taken for at least 12 hours after drinking alcohol. Unpleasant side effects (nausea, headache, vomiting, chest pains, difficulty breathing) can occur as soon as ten minutes after drinking even a small amount of alcohol and can last for an hour or more.
- Naltrexone – blocks the euphoric effects and feelings of intoxication and allows people with alcohol use disorders to reduce alcohol use and to remain motivated to continue to take the medication, stay in treatment, and avoid relapses.
To learn more about MAT for alcohol use disorders view Medication for the Treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Brief Guide – 2015 and TIP 49: Incorporating Alcohol Pharmacotherapies Into Medical Practice.
Opioid Dependency Medications – Buprenorphine, methadone, and naltrexone are used to treat opioid use disorders to short-acting opioids such as heroin, morphine, and codeine, as well as semi-synthetic opioids like oxycodone and hydrocodone. These MAT medications are safe to use for months, years, or even a lifetime. As with any medication, consult your doctor before discontinuing use.
- Buprenorphine – suppresses and reduces cravings for opioids. Learn more about buprenorphine.
- Methadone – reduces opioid cravings and withdrawal and blunts or blocks the effects of opioids. Learn more about methadone.
- Naltrexone – blocks the euphoric and sedative effects of opioids and prevents feelings of euphoria. Learn more about naltrexone.
Learn more about MAT for opioid use disorders and download TIP 63: Medications for Opioid Use Disorder – 2021.
Opioid Overdose Prevention Medication – Naloxone saves lives by reversing the toxic effects of overdose. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), naloxone is one of a number of medications considered essential to a functioning health care system.
- Naloxone – used to prevent opioid overdose, naloxone reverses the toxic effects of the overdose. Learn more about Naloxone.
MAT Medications and Child Safety
It’s important to remember that if medications are allowed to be kept at home, they must be locked in a safe place away from children. Methadone in its liquid form is colored and is sometimes mistaken for a soft drink. Children who take medications used in MAT may overdose or experience adverse reactions.
Prevent children and pets from accidental Ingestion by storing it out of reach. For more information, visit CDC’s Up and Away educational campaign. For information on how to dispose of medications in your house, refer to FDA’s information How to Safely Dispose of Unused or Expired Medicine or DEA’s drug disposal webpages.
Counseling and Behavioral Therapies
Under federal law 42.CFR 8.12, MAT patients receiving treatment in OTPs must receive counseling, which may include different forms of behavioral therapy. These services are required along with medical, vocational, educational, and other assessment and treatment services. Learn more about these treatments for substance use disorders.
Regardless of what setting MAT is provided in, it is more effective when counseling and other behavioral health therapies are included to provide patients with a whole-person approach.
Co-Occurring Disorders and Other Health Conditions
The coexistence of both a substance use disorder and a mental illness, known as a co-occurring disorder, is common among people in MAT. In addition, individuals may have other health related conditions such a hepatitis, HIV and AIDS. Learn more about co-occurring disorders and other health conditions.
Training and Resources
SAMHSA offers tools, training, and technical assistance to practitioners in the fields of mental health and substance use disorders. Find information on SAMHSA training and resources.